5 Orbits NROL-61
Atlas 5 AV-065 successfully boosted NROL-61 into geosynchronous transfer orbit for the
U.S. National Reconnaissance Office on July 28, 2016. The Atlas 5-421 vehicle with two
strap-on solid rocket motors and a 4-meter diameter Extra Extended Payload Fairing (XEPF),
lifted off from Cape Canaveral Space Launch Complex 41 at 12:37 UTC. The rocket's Centaur
upper stage performed two burns prior to satellite separation, followed by a third,
While the satellite's mission is classified, some analysts believe that NROL-61 is a new
generation data relay satellite designed to transfer the massive volumes of data collected
by digital imaging spy satellites that reside in low earth orbit from space to ground
stations. Previous satellites of this type, which have flown since the mid-1970s, have
been identified as Satellite Data System (SDS) and Quasar, operating in both Molniya and
It was the fourth Atlas 5 launch of the year.
Launches CRS 9
F9-27 Liftoff from SLC 40
The 27th Falcon 9 orbited the Dragon 11 spacecraft on
NASA's CRS 9 International Space Station cargo hauling mission on July 18, 2016. After
performing the initial boost, the rocket's first stage performed three-engine boost back
and reentry burns and a single-engine landing burn and landed at Cape Canaveral's Landing
Zone 1. It was the fifth first stage to land successfully and the second to fly back
and land at Cape Canaveral.
Liftoff took place at 04:45 UTC from SLC 40. Falcon 9 aimed on a northeast azimuth during
its nine minute ascent. Dragon was targeted toward a 200 x 360 km x 51.6 deg orbit. The
spacecraft carried nearly 2,222 kg of cargo, including the first of two international
docking adapters, to allow commercial crew spacecraft dockings, in the unpressurized trunk
section. Combined Dragon and cargo mass was about 9.5 tonnes.
During the ascent, the first stage fired for 141 seconds, with stage separation three
seconds later. Stage 2 ignited at 152 seconds to begin its 390 second burn to orbit.
The first stage boost back burn began only 21 seconds after first stage main engine
cutoff, after a rapid maneuver to align the stage thrust vector back toward Cape
Canaveral. This three-engine burn lasted more than 50 seconds. The stage
coasted on a sligthly lofted trajectory before beginning its 18-plus second entry burn at
the 361 second mark. 458 seconds after liftoff, the final landing burn began and
continued for about 31 seconds until the stage settled on its Landing Zone 1 circular
concrete pad. Elon Musk soon reported that the stage appeared to be in good
Landing at LZ-1
Dragon separated from the second stage at the 577 second
mark. The spacecraft's solar arrays deployed about 1.5 minutes later. The
second stage subsequently performed a reentry burn that targeted a Southern Ocean zone
south of Australia.
The F9-27 first stage had performed a static firing at
SLC 40 on July 16. Both stages had been test fired at McGregor, Texas during June.
It was the year's 10th orbital launch from Cape
Canaveral, more than any other launch center this year to date.
U Orbits Progress MS-03
One of the final Soyuz U launch vehicles orbited Russia's Progress MS-03 robotic cargo
hauler toward the International Space Station from Baikonur Cosmodrome on July 16, 2016.
Liftoff from Area 31 Pad 6 took place at 21:41 UTC. It was the second Progress launch of
the year and the 45th orbital flight worldwide in 2016.
Progress MS-03 will dock with ISS on July 18 if plans hold. The multi-module spacecraft
weighed 7,281 kg at liftoff, including 2,405 kg of cargo.
After the launch, only two more Soyuz U launch vehicles remain. Both should fly by the end
of 2017. Soyuz U, which has been in service since 1973, is, with 774 launch attempts to
date, the most oft-flown launch vehicle variant in history. The type is being replaced by
Soyuz FG and Soyuz 2 variants.
Launches ISS Crew
A 2.5 stage Soyuz FG rocket orbited Russia's Soyuz MS-01 spacecraft Baikonur, Kazakhstan
with three International Space Station crew on July 7, 2016. Liftoff from Baikonur
Cosmodrome Area 1 Pad 5 took place at 01:36 UTC. The spacecraft entered a 230 x 190
km x 51.6 deg initial orbit. Onboard the upgraded spacecraft were Russia's Anatoly
Ivanishin, Japan's Takuya Onishi, and NASA's Kate Rubins, comprising the Expedition 48/49
This first example of the Soyuz MS model spacecraft features improved, navigation,
communications, and computer systems that were previously introduced on unmanned Progress
MS flights. Since it is the inaugural crewed flight, Soyuz MS-01 will take a 34 orbit, 51
hour journey before its schedule ISS rendezvous.
It was 2016's second crewed orbital launch, and was the 10th R-7 launch of the year.
(June 30, 2016 Update)
China's CZ-4B (Chang Zheng, or Long March) orbited the second Shijian 16 satellite from
Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center on June 29, 2016. Liftoff from LC 43/603 took place at
03:21 UTC. The satellite, announced by China state media to be used for space
environment measurements and technology testing", entered a 595 x 616 km x 75 deg
Some Western analysts suspect that Shijian 16 is an
electronic intelligence (ELNIT) satellite designed to intercept radio signals.
Another CZ-4B had orbited the first Shijian-16 satellite in October 2013.
It was the eighth DF-5 based CZ orbital launch, and the ninth orbital launch by China, of
Debuts CZ-7, Wenchang Launch Site
(June 30, 2016 Update)
CZ-7 Inaugural Liftoff
China's Chang Zheng (Long March) 7 flew successfully on
its first try from the country's new Wenchang
Satellite Launch Center on June 25, 2016. The liftoff, from Pad 201, the easternmost
of two new launch pads at the Center, took place at 12:00 UTC. The launch site, on Hainan
Island off China's southern coastline, is China's first sea-side launch site, which
allowed the rocket stages to fall into the South China Sea as the vehicle ascended on a
southeast azimuth toward orbit.
CZ-7 flew to a 200 x 394 km x 40.8 deg initial orbit with several demonstration payloads,
including a 2.6 tonne blunt cone-shaped, scaled-down Next Generation Crew Vehicle that
reentered and landed in China after about one day in orbit. Several microsatellites and
ballast were also carried within the payload fairing atop a restartable YZ-1A upper stage.
Total payload mass was reportedly about 12 tonnes, which would be the heaviest payload
orbited since Japan's HTV-5 ISS cargo hauler in August, 2015.
After entering orbit, the YZ-1A stage, which may use
four 408 kgf thrust YF-85 hydrogen peroxide/kerosene engines, appeared to have performed
several maneuvers, with objects tracked in orbits with apogees as high as 580 km.
The stage is also believed to have performed the NGCV deorbit burn.
CZ-7 is the second of Chinas Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology's (CALT) new
family of launchers to enter service, following the smaller CZ-6 in September 2015. CZ-7
uses a 3.35 meter diameter core stage powered by two 122.5 tonne thrust YF-100 RP/LOX
staged combustion engines. Four 2.25 meter diameter strap-on boosters, each powered by one
YF-100, augment the core to produce a total of 734.1 tonnes (1.618 million pounds) of
thrust at liftoff. Four 18 tonne thrust YF-115 RP/LOX staged combustion engines power the
3.35 meter diameter second stage. The rocket weighs about 594 tonnes at liftoff and stands
about 53.1 meters tall.
Rollout on June 22, 2016, Pad 101 in Background (CZ-7 Diverged to East (Left), Toward Pad
The 2.5 stage CZ-7 version can lift 13.5 tonnes to 200 x
400 km x 42 deg or 5.5 tonnes to a 700 km sun synchronous orbit. A liquid hydrogen third
stage could be added in the future to lift payloads to GTO.
The CZ-7 core stage will serve as a strap-on booster for
China's next, biggest-ever rocket, CZ-5, which may debut later this year. CZ-5 will have a
5 meter diameter liquid hydrogen fueled core stage and will be able to lift 25 tonnes to
LEO, making it among the world's most powerful orbital launchers.
CZ-5 will fly from Pad 101, the west pad at Wenchang. The Center features two vertical
assembly buildings, one for CZ-7 and one for CZ-5, which are located about 2.7 km north of
the sea-side pads. Stacked launch vehicles move on rail-based mobile transporters from the
VAB to the pad. A complete CZ-7 Ground Test Vehicle was assembled at Wenchang during early
2015 and moved to Pad 201 to check out the new site.
Atlas 5 Launches
AV-063, an Atlas 5-551, the most powerful Atlas 5 version, boosted the U.S. Navy's MUOS 5
(Mobile User Objective System) communications satellite into geosynchronous transfer orbit
from Cape Canaveral on June 24, 2016. The 2.5 stage rocket lifted off from Space Launch
Complex 41 at 14:30 UTC to begin its 2 hour 53 minute 17 second mission.
During the flight, the liquid hydrogen fueled Centaur stage performed three burns. The
first placed the vehicle into a low parking orbit. The second, which began at T+20:27,
boosted the stage and satellite into a 194 x 34,447 km x 26 deg transfer orbit. After a
2.5 hour coast to apogee, Centaur ignited a third time to boost itself into a 3,841 by
35,706 km x 19.1 deg insertion orbit.
MUOS 5 is the fifth and final first generation MUOS satellite. The first was launched in
2012. It and all subsequent MUOS satellites were orbited by Atlas 5-551 rockets. Lockheed
Martin assembled the 6,740 kg A2100M series satellites. MUOS provides video, voice, and
data communications to mobile terminals using UHF and WCDMA communications systems.
AV-063 was the first Atlas 5 launch since a faulty RD-180 Mixture Ratio Control Valve
(MRCV) nearly doomed the the OA-6 Cygnus mission during March, 2016. The problem caused a
shift to an improper fuel/oxidizer mix during the final minute of the first stage flight,
causing LOX to be depleted six seconds before the planned RD-180 shutdown. The Centaur
stage burned more than 60 seconds longer than planned to compensate for the error, but
nearly ran out of propellant while doing so. A subsequent investigation pinpointed the
MRCV problem and identified a solution. The MUOS 5 flight was delayed for several weeks
while the investigation was underway.
Launches Cartosat 2
PSLV-C34, Indian Space Research Organization's 36th
PSLV, orbited the 727.5 kg Cartosat 2 earth observation satellite and 19 co-passenger
satellites that together weighed 560 kg from Sriharikota, India on June 22, 2016. Liftoff
from the Second Launch Pad of Satish Dhawan space Center took place at 03:55 UTC. The 4.5
stage PSLV-XL rocket boosted its payloads into a 505 km x 97.48 deg sun synchronous orbit
during a 25.5 minute mission.
Cartosat 2 will provide remote sensing services using its panchromatic and multispectral
It was the year's 40 orbital launch, which have taken
place with no failures.
Launches Two Comsats
Ariane 5 ECA L584 launched two communication satellites into orbit from Kourou Space
Center on June 18, 2016. Echostar 18 and BRIsat reached geosynchronous transfer orbit
about 30 minutes after the 21:38 UTC liftoff from ELA 3. The VA230 Arianespace mission
took place after a weather scrub the previous day.
Together, the satellites weighed 9,840 kg at liftoff, making this the heaviest GTO payload
yet launched by an Ariane 5. EchoStar 18, a 6,300 kg Space Systems Loral 1300 series
satellite, will be operated at 110 deg West by Echostar for for DISH Network. It will
provide Ku-band coverage, using 61 Ku-band transponders, for the U.S., Puerto Rico, and
BRIsat, also an SSL 1300 series satellite, rode beneath Echostar 18 within a long version
Sylda 5 shroud. It is the first communications satellite owned by a bank, P.T. Bank
Rakyat Indonesia. The 3,540 kg satellite will use 36 C-band and 0 Ku-band transponders to
serve bank branches in Indonesia and South East Asia from its 150.5 deg East position in
Launches Comsat Pair
The 26th SpaceX Falcon 9, and sixth v1.2 variant, launched Eutelsat 117 West B and ABS 2A
to supersynchronous transfer orbit from Cape Canaveral, Florida on June 15, 2016. The
two-stage kerosene/LOX rocket lifted off from Space Launch Complex 40 at 14:49 UTC.
Eutelsat 117 West B, which was stacked directly atop ABS 2A, was deployed about 30 minutes
after liftoff. ABS 2A followed about 5 minutes later.
After firing for 2 minutes 36 seconds during the ascent, the first stage separated and
attempted another experimental landing on the Of Course I Still Love You
landing platform. The landing was not successful. The stage appeared to have reached the
platform but was soon replaced in webcast views by images of flames and smoke. Elon
Musk subsequently tweeted that "thrust was low on 1 of 3 landing engines. High g
landings v[ery] sensitive to all engines operating at max."
Boeing built both of the BSS-702SP series communications satellites. Both have 48
transponders and 4 dedicated Ku-band transmitters. Both use XIPS-25 Xenon gas-fueled
all-electric propulsion systems. Eutelsat 117 West B will serve Latin America from 116.8
deg West in geosynchronous orbit. ABS-2A will be positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 75
deg East to serve Africa, Europe, Russia, South Asia and South East Asia. BSS-702SP
satellites typically weigh 1,800 to 2,500 kg at launch. Eutelsat 117 West B weighed
1,963 kg, according to Eutelsat. The combined payload mass may have been 4,000 to
It was the year's sixth Falcon 9 launch. The
vehicle's first and second stages were test fired at McGregor, Texas during mid-May.
The first stage arrived at Cape Canaveral on May 27, 2016, shortly after the F9-25 Thaicom
8 launch. The vehicle was assembled without payload and on June 12, 2016 was rolled
out and briefly test fired on the SLC 40 pad. After the early-morning hot fire, the
vehicle returned to the horizontal integration facility for payload integration.
A Chang Zheng (Long March) 3C launched China's 23rd Beidou navigation satellite from
Xichang Satellite Launch Center on June 12, 2016. Liftoff from LC 3 took place at 15:30
UTC. The 3.5-stage rocket boosted Beidou 23, identified by some Western analysts as Beidou
2 G7, into a geosynchronous transfer orbit. The satellite will lift itself into a
Beidou is based on the DFH-3 bus. China has been steadily building its first navigation
satellite constellation during the last few years. As many as 35 satellites are planned,
including three in inclined geosynchronous orbits, five in geostationary orbits, and 27 in
12-hour, 21,500 km circular orbits.
It was the year's seventh CZ launch.
Delta 4 Heavy Orbits NROL 37
The ninth Delta 4-Heavy orbited NROL 37 for the National
Reconnaissance Office from Cape Canaveral, Florida on June 11, 2016. The big, triple core
rocket, currently the world's most capable orbital launcher, rose from its SLC 37B launch
pad on nearly 955.28 tonnes (2.1 million pounds) of combined thrust from its three liquid
hydrogen fueled RS-68A engines. Liftoff occurred at 17:51 UTC, following a weather scrub
on June 9.
NROL 37 may be a Mentor (or Advanced Orion) signals intelligence satellite aimed for
near-geosynchronous orbit using three burns by the upper stage RL10B-2 engine during a
roughly six hour mission. Six previous Mentor satellites, described as the largest
satellites ever deployed, are believed to have been orbited by Titan 4 and Delta 4 Heavy
launch vehicles since 1993.
The most recent Mentor launch, in June 2012, used the
first set of improved RS-68A engines. RS-68A was said to have been developed specifically
to lift the latest Mentor versions, which could weigh as much as 6 metric tons. The
satellites are believed to have a huge antenna reflector, or arrays of reflectors, that
deploy after they reach their operational orbits.
It was the 32nd Delta 4 launch. The flight, designated "Delta 374", was
the last Delta 4 Heavy until 2018.
An upgraded "Phase 4" Proton M/Briz M launched Intelsat 31 toward a planned
supersynchronous transfer orbit from Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on June 9, 2016. The
four-stage, 705 tonne rocket lifted off from Area 81 Pad 24 at 07:10 UTC, beginning a
planned 15.5 hour mission involving five-burns by the Briz M upper stage. Intelsat 31, a
6.32 tonne Space Systems Loral 1300 series communications satellite, was aimed toward a
3,503 x 65,000 km x 29.6 deg transfer orbit. The planned GTO was only about 1,500
m/s short of geosynchronous orbit.
During the Proton ascent phase, one of the four second stage main engines shut down nine
seconds early, causing a small delta-v shortfall. Staging was otherwise nominal and, after
the third stage completed its burn, the Briz M upper stage fired 32.66 seconds longer than
planned to reach its initial low earth parking orbit. Briz M completed its subsequent four
burns roughly on time. The fifth and final burn followed a long coast to apogee.
Spacecraft separation took place at about 22:41 UTC.
Soon after spacecraft separation, launch service
provider ILS and satellite owner Intelsat declared the launch a success.
It was the 412th Proton launch, the third Proton flight of the year, and the 35th orbital
launch of the year worldwide.
Orbits Geo-IK-2 No. 12L
Russia's Rokot/Briz KM orbited a Russian Defense
Ministry gravity mapping satellite from Plestesk Cosmodrome on June 4, 2016. The
three-stage rocket, consisting of a retired two-stage RS-18 ICBM topped by a Khrunichev
Briz KM upper stage, lifted off from LC 133/3 at 13:45 UTC. The satellite, named Geo-IK-2
No. 12L, entered a sun synchronous orbit.
ISS Reshetnev developed the 900 kg Geo-IK-2 No. 12L geodesy satellite, which will map the
earth's gravitational field and land and sea surface heights from its operational 1,000 km
x 98.6 deg orbit. The satellite will perform the mission of Geo-IK-2 No. 11, which was
placed into an incorrect orbit by another Rokot/Briz KM in February 2011.
A Russian Aerospace Force combat crew performed the launch. It was the 26th Rokot/Briz KM
orbital attempt. The launch vehicle's development also included two suborbital and
one orbital Rokot/Briz K flights during the early 1990s.
The flight garnered the attention of Canadian environmentalists because the second stage
debris impact zone was in the northern part of Baffin Bay between Greenland and Elsemere
Island. Although in international waters, the impact zone was within the claimed exclusive
economic zones of Canada and Denmark.
Orbits Remote Sensing Satellite
China's Chang Zheng (Long March) 4B launched Ziyuan 3-2, a high-resolution remote sensing
satellite, from Taiyaun Satellite Launch Center on May 30, 2016. Liftoff from LC 9 took
place at 03:17 UTC. Ziyuan 3-2, a 2,630 kg satellite built by Chinas Academy
of Space Technology/Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering for the Chinese
Ministry of Land and Resources, was injected into sun synchronous orbit. Two Aleph 1
microsatellite were also orbited.
Ziyuan 3-2, fitted with multiple cameras and an infrared multispectral scanner, will be
used for civil mapping purposes. It will operate in a 506 km x 97.42 deg orbit.
Orbits Glonass Navsat
Russia's Soyuz 2-1B/Fregat launched a GLONASS-M
navigation satellite from Plesetsk Cosmodrome Site 43/4 on May 29, 2016. Liftoff took
place at 08:44 UTC. The 1,415 kg satellite was identified as Glonass 53. It was
slated to be named Kosmos 2516 after a successful orbit had been achieved.
Spacecraft separation occurred at 12:16 UTC. After the
Soyuz rocket boosted Fregat and its payload into low earth orbit, the Fregat upper stage
performed three burns to lift the 1.415 tonne satellite into a roughly 19,140 km x 64.8
It was the ninth R-7 launch of 2016.
9 Launches Thaicom 8
SpaceX Corporation's 25th Falcon 9 rocket, and its fifth
upgraded Falcon 9 v1.2 variant, launched Thailand's Thaicom 8 communication satellite into
orbit from Cape Canaveral, Florida on May 27, 2016. Liftoff of the 69.98 meter (229.6
foot) tall rocket from Space Launch Complex 40 took place at 21:39 UTC. After a 2 minute
35 second first stage burn, the Merlin 1D Vacuum powered, stretched second stage performed
two burns, with a roughly 18 minute parking orbit coast between, to accelerate the 3.025
metric ton (tonne) Orbital ATK GEOStar 2 satellite toward a targeted 250 x 90,000 km
supersynchronous transfer orbit.
After its ascent burn, the first stage reoriented itself to perform experimental reentry
and landing retro-burns, while using four grid-fins to steer toward a SpaceX landing
platform positioned on the Atlantic Ocean surface about 680 km downrange. The stage
achieved the third consecutive successful sea platform landing.
The initial second stage burn lasted for about 6 minutes 10 seconds to reach a low earth
parking orbit. Payload fairing separation occurred about 51 seconds after the start of the
burn. After a roughly 18 minute coast, the second stage reignited for a one minute 13
seconds burn to loft the payload toward its insertion orbit. Spacecraft separation
occurred about 31 minutes 56 seconds after liftoff.
First Stage on Landing Platform
After maneuvering itself to geosynchronous orbit,
Thaicom 8, equipped with 24 Ku-band transponders, will be located at 78.5 degrees East.
During the launch campaign, the Thaicom 8 stages performed qualification burns at
McGregor, Texas during mid-April. The first stage performed a hot fire test at SLC 40 on
May 24, 2016. The first launch attempt was scrubbed on May 26 during the final hour of the
countdown to investigate a potential second stage actuator problem
2-1b/Fregat Orbits Navsat Pair
A Soyuz 2-1b/Fregat successfully orbited two more European Galileo navigation satellites
from the Kourou Soyuz Launch Zone on May 24, 2016. Liftoff for the VS15 mission for
Arianespace took place at 08:48:43 UTC. After the 2.5-stage R-7/Soyuz rocket completed its
ascent, the Fregat MT upper stage performed two burns during a nearly four hour FOC 5
mission to place Galileo FM10 and FM11 into 23,522 kilometer circular orbits at an
inclination of 57.4 degrees.
OHB-System and SSTL built the satellite bus and payload, respectfully, for the 715 kg
Galileo satellites. After a 2014 failure that placed two satellites into an improper
orbit, these will become the fourth pair of properly placed "Full Operational
Capability" satellites of a planned 22 satellite constellation. Including the
mis-placed pair and four initial operating capability test satellites launched in 2011 and
2012, there are now 14 Galileo satellites in orbit.
Russia's Roscosmos was in charge of range operations for the launch. TsENKI handled
systems engineering. Crews from RKTs-Progress (Soyuz) and NPO Lavochkin (Fregat) handled
It was the year's 30th orbital launch, all of which have
Orbits Yaogan 30
A Chang Zheng 2D (CZ-2D) orbited a remote sensing satellite for China from Jiuquan
Satellite Launch Center on May 15, 2016. The two-stage hypergolic propellant rocket lifted
off from LC 43-603 at 02:43 UTC. The satellite, named Yaogan 30, entered a roughly 626 x
655 km x 98.07 deg sun synchronous low earth orbit, an orbit to which CZ-2D is capable of
lifting at least 2 metric tonnes.
China announced that the satellite will be used for scientific experiments, land survey,
and crop and disaster monitoring. Western analysts suspect that Yaogan 30 is an
electro-optical reconnaisance satellite used primarily for military purposes.
It was the fifth CZ launch of 2016.
Launches JCSAT 14
The 24th Falcon 9, and fourth Falcon 9 v1.2 with full-thrust Merlin 1D engines, boosted
SKY Perfect JSAT Corparation's JCSAT 14 communications satellite into geosynchronous
transfer orbit from Cape Canaveral, Florida on May 6, 2016. Liftoff from SLC 40 took place
at 05:21 UTC. The 4,696.2 kg Space Systems Loral 1300-series satellite separated about 32
minutes 2 seconds later, after two burns by the second stage Merlin 1D Vacuum engine that
together totaled 7 minutes 3 seconds. The first stage fired for 2 minutes 38
JCSAT 14 separated into a 189 x 35,957 km x 23.7 deg transfer orbit 32 minutes 2 seconds
after liftoff. It was the third Falcon 9 v1.2 geosynchronous transfer orbit mission.
As it had before the SES 9 launch, SpaceX announced before the liftoff that it did not
expect a successful first stage recovery, although more landing propellant was available
due to the lighter payload and lower energy orbit compared to SES 9. The first
stage performed a three-engine reentry burn and a three-engine final landing burn to
land successfully on the deck of a converted barge positioned about 658 km
downrange. It was the second successful barge landing in six attempts.
The success followed a brief launch vehicle static test firing at SLC 40 on May 1.
The vehicle's stages performed acceptance test firings at McGregor, Texas during
India's PSLV-XL orbited IRNSS 1G, the country's seventh navigation satellite, from
Sriharikota on April 28, 2016. The 4.5 -stage rocket lifted off from Satish Dhawan Space
Center's First Launch Pad at 07:20 UTC. The 20 minute, 19 second PSLV C-33 mission boosted
the 1,425 kg satellite toward a planned 284 x 20,657 km x 17.86 deg subsychronous transfer
orbit. IRNSS 1G will raise itself to a nearly 36,000 km circular geosynchronous orbit
inclined 5 degrees to the equator. IRNSS 1G will trace a small figure-8 pattern over the
Earth's surface, centered on 129.5 deg East longitude.
The flight completed India's first generation navigation constellation, which will consist
of four satellites in inclined geosynchronous orbit and three in equatorial geostationary
It was the 35th PSLV flight and the 31th consecutive success. PSLV began flying in 1993.
Russia's Vostochny Cosmodrome hosted its first orbital launch on April 28, 2016, when a
Soyuz 2-1a with a Volga upper stage boosted three satellites to sun synchronous low earth
orbit. Liftoff took place at 02:01 UTC. Primary satellite Mikhailo Lomonosov, designed to
study cosmic and gamma rays, was joined by two small secondary satellites named Aist 2 and
The hypergolic liquid fueled Volga stage, which has
flown atop Soyuz 2-1v, was slated to perform two burns, at about T+50 and T+95
minutes. Spacecraft separation was to follow the second burn. A third, deorbit
burn was then scheduled to aim the stage toward the Pacific Ocean.
Vostochny, Russia's new Eastern spaceport, is being
built around the former Svobodny Cosmodrome, which last hosted a Start 1 orbital launch in
2006. Svobodny was orignally a mobile ICBM site. The site is in Russia's Far East near the
51st parallel in Amur Oblast. It lies 600-800 km from the Pacific Ocean. This first flight
ascended on a northwesterly track across Siberia toward the Arctic Ocean.
Vostochny, under construction since 2010, consists of the new "Site 1" Soyuz
launch pad and a "Site 2" comprising large launch vehicle and payload processing
buildings. The new Soyuz launch site has the familiar rail-based transport/erector, deep
R-7 flame trench, and trussed counterbalanced launcher, but also includes a mobile service
tower similar to Kourou ELS Soyuz launch site. The first Soyuz 2 launch vehicle arrived at
Vostochny in late September, 2015 by train. It was used to test facilities for several
months, an effort that culminated in a full propellant loading exercise.
Plans call for a second launch pad to be built for Russia's new Angara launch vehicle
family. Eventually, Vostochny may host crewed launches, which would allow Russia to pull
out of Baikonur Cosmodrome, which is located outside Russian borders in Kazakhstan.
2-1a/Fregat Launches Sentinel 1B
Russian contractor teams launched a Soyuz 2-1a/Fregat from Kourou Space Center in French
Guiana for Arianespace on April 25, 2016. The VS14 launch orbited the European Space
Agency's Sentinel 1B environmental monitoring satellite. The 3.5 stage rocket lifted off
from the ELS pad at 21:02 UTC to begin the Arianespace VS14 mission. The 2,164 kg Thales
Alenia Space-built satellite was boosted into a 686 km x 98.18 deg sun synchronous orbit
after the Fregat stage completed a single burn about 20 minutes after liftoff.
Sentinel 1B will use a C-band synthetic aperture radar to provide imagery of both ocean
and land surfaces.
After deploying Sentinel 1B, Fregat perfomed a second burn to deploy three 1 kg CubeSats
in 453 x 665 km orbits. The stage performed two more burns before deploying the 303 kg
Microscope satellite into a 711 km x 98.23 deg orbit some 4 hours 52 minutes after
liftoff. Fregat then performed a final deorbit burn.
Launches CRS 8, First Stage Lands at Sea
The 23rd Falcon 9 launch vehicle successfully orbited
the Dragon 10 spacecraft on NASA's CRS 8 International Space Station cargo hauling mission
on April 8, 2016. After performing the initial mission boost, the rocket's first stage
accomplished the first successful landing on a floating platform - the company's converted
landing barge - positioned about 300 km northeast of the Cape Canaveral Space Launch
Complex 40 launch site. It was the fifth such attempt.
Liftoff took place at 20:43 UTC after no delays or scrubs. Dragon was targeted
toward a 200 x 360 km x 51.6 deg orbit. The spacecraft carried 3,136 kg of cargo,
including the 1,413 kg Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) experiment in the
unpressurized trunk section. At roughly 10.4 tonnes, the combined Dragon and cargo mass
was the heaviest-payload yet launched by a Falcon 9.
F9-23 First Stage After Landing
During its descent, the first stage perform three-engine
boost-back and reentry burns, followed by a final single-engine landing burn.
Landing took place about 8 minutes 35 seconds after liftoff.
The F9-23 first stage had performed a static firing at
SLC 40 on April 5. After its successful static testing at McGregor, Texas during
February, a ground equipment failure damaged multiple engines during a non-propulsive
test. The engines were repaired or replaced without causing significant delay to the
Dragon arrived at ISS on April 10, 2016.
The landing platform with the first stage returned to
Port Canaveral during the pre-dawn hours of April 12, 2016. During the day, a crane
picked up the stage from the barge and placed it onto a work stand on the dock.
Orbits Shijian 10
China's Chang Zheng (Long March) 2D launched a recoverable spacecraft named Shijian 10
into orbit from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center on April 5, 2016. The two-stage rocket,
serial number Y36, lifted off from LC 43 Pad 603 at 17:38 UTC. Shijian 10, a 3,600 kg
satellite with a cylindrical section topped by a conical reentry vehicle, was inserted
into a 234 x 268 km x 42.89 deg orbit. It housed 29 physics and biology experiments.
Shijian 10 is slated to return to earth after two weeks in orbit.
It was the 27th CZ-2D launch, all of which have succeeded. The type began flying in 1992.
See Older Launch Reports in the Space Launch Report