Fails to Orbit Brazilian Satellite
A Chang Zheng 4B rocket launched Brazil's
CBERS-3 satellite from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center on December 9, 2013. The
three-stage rocket lifted off at 03:26 UTC from the center's Launch Complex 9.
CBERS-3 was aimed toward a 778 km sun synchronous earth orbit, but something went wrong
during the ascent and no orbit was achieved.
CBERS, which stands for "China-Brazil Earth
Resources Satellite", was a 2.1 tonne earth observation satellite jointly developed
by China and Brazil.
According to Oswaldo Duarte Miranda, the deputy
director of Brazil's National Institute for Space Research, the CZ-4B third stage cut off
11 seconds before it's planned T+16 minute shut down time, leaving CBERS-3 in a suborbital
After a five minute propulsion phase
performed by its first two stages, the CZ-4B third stage coasts upward for more than four
minutes to orbital altitude. The stage then performs a single burn of its two YF-40
engines, burning UDMH/N2O4 hypergolic propellants to produce 10.3 tonnes of thrust for
durations that can exceed 6 minutes. If the 11 second early cutoff report is
correct, the stage performed all but the final roughly 3% of its burn, but that is enough
to fall well short of orbital velocity.
It was the 13th CZ launch of the year, and China's 14th
orbital attempt of 2013.
Lauches Inmarsat 5-F1
Russia's Proton M/Briz M successfully boosted Inmarsat-5 F1 into supersynchronous
transfer orbit from Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on December 8, 2013. Liftoff
from Area 200 Pad 39 occurred at 12:12 UTC to begin a 15 hour 31 minute mission that
included five burns by the Briz M upper stage.
The Boeing-built BSS-702HP model, 6.1 tonne satellite was aimed toward a 4,341 x 65,000
km x 26.75 deg orbit.
It was the ninth Proton launch of 2013 and the 22nd launch from Baikonur this year.
One Proton launch failed during the year.
Atlas Launches Secret Satellite
An Atlas 5-501 launched NROL-39, a classified satellite for the National Reconnaissance
Office, into orbit from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California on December 6, 2013. The
two-stage, 337 tonne rocket lifted off from Space Launch Complex 3 East at 07:14 UTC, then
rose into the night sky and, as its 5 meter diameter European built payload fairing
separated, entered a news blackout. A little less than two hours later, United Launch
Alliance announced that the launch had been a success.
According to Notice to Mariners warnings posted before the launch, the Atlas flew a
southwest trajectory consistent with a retrograde orbit. Two prior launches along similar
flight paths (NROL 41 in September 2010 and NROL-25 in April 2012) were believed to have
placed Topaz radar imagery satellites into 1,100 km x 123 deg orbits. Such missions would
likely have called for the Atlas 5 Centaur second stage to perform two burns, with the
second occurring about 45 minutes after the first.
Documents leaked by former NSA contractor Edward Snowden confirmed that Topaz radar
imagery satellites are replacing a previous generation named Onyx.
It was the eighth and final Atlas 5 launch of 2013, the highest one year total during the
12 year history of the Lockheed Martin developed vehicle. It was also the 32nd
consecutive Atlas 5 success and the 42nd Atlas 5 launch since the RD-180 powered rocket
began flying in 2002.
Falcon 9 Performs First Geosynchronous
The second SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1,
and the seventh Falcon 9 overall, performed the Hawthorne, California company's first
commercial geosynchronous transfer orbit launch from Cape Canaveral, Florida on December
3, 2013. The launch boosted SES 8, a 3,138 kg communications satellite built by
Orbital Sciences for SES of Luxembourg, toward a targeted 295 x 80,000 km x 20.75 degree
supersynchronous transfer orbit.
Liftoff from Space Launch Complex 40 occurred at 22:41 UTC. The on-time launch took
place after two prior scrubbed attempts. A November 25 attempt was halted 3 min. 40
sec before launch by pressure fluctuations in the first stage LOX tank. A
last-second abort during engine start ended the launch attempt on Thanksgiving Day,
November 28, 2013. SpaceX replaced a gas generator on one Merlin 1D engine after
nine Merlin 1D first stage engines produced about 600 tonnes of liftoff thrust to boost
the 69 meter tall, more than 500 tonne rocket slowly off its pad. The first stage
burn ended about two minutes 54 seconds after liftoff, with two engines cutting off
shortly before the remining seven. The second stage Merlin 1D Vacuum engine peformed
two burns, with the first lasting about five minutes 20 seconds and the second about 71
seconds. The stage coasted in a parking orbit for about 18 minutes toward the first
equator crossing over the Atlantic Ocean before the restart.
SES separated about 31 minutes 15 seconds after liftoff.
The second stage restart was a critical event. A
restart had failed to occur during the inaugural September 29, 2013 Falcon 9 v1.1 flight
in a test of the stage after payloads had successfully separated into their planned low
earth orbits. SpaceX determined that hypergolic igniter fluid had been frozen by
gaseous oxygen impingement during the flight. The company added insulation to
prevent a recurrence.
SES 8 became the first satellite boosted to
geosynchronous transfer orbit by a two-stage hydrocarbon fueled rocket.
It was the third Falcon 9 launch of 2013, the most in
one year to date. The launch was also the 10th of the year by all launch vehicles
from Cape Canaveral.
China launched its first attempt at a robotic lunar landing mission on December 1, 2013
from XiChang space center in southwest China's Sichuan province. If successful, it would
be the first lunar landing since the Soviet Union's Luna 24 landed during August 1976.
A Chang Zheng (Long March) 3B rocket, performing the 25th flight of China's most powerful
launch vehicle, lifted off at 17:30 UTC from Launch Complex 2 with the 1.2 tonne Chang'e 3
lander, which carried the 140 kg "Yutu" ("jade rabbit") six-wheeled
rover. The CZ-3B liquid hydrogen fueled third stage performed two burns during a 19 minute
long mission to boost Chang'e 3 into a 210 x 389,109 km x 28.5 deg. elliptical earth
orbit. After a four day transit to the vicinity of the Moon, the spacecraft is expected to
insert itself into lunar orbit. It is expected to attempt a landing upon the Sinus
Iridum plain just northwest of Mare Imbrium on December 14.
Chang'e 3, China's third lunar mission, following two lunar orbiters, is planned to be the
first of a series of landings.
Both the lander and the Yutu rover are equipped with plutonium heaters to keep the
spacecraft warm during the two-week long lunar nights.
It was the year's 12th CZ launch and China's 13th orbital flight, but only the second
launch from XiChang in 2013.
Russia's Soyuz-U launched Progress M-21M, an unmanned
cargo hauler bound for the International Space Station (ISS), into orbit from Baikonur
Cosmodrome Area 31 Pad 6 on November 25, 2013. Liftoff took place at 20:53
Progress M-21M was equipped with a new rendezvous system
that will be tested during a four-day period prior to docking with ISS. The
spacecraft carries nearly 3 tonnes of supplies for the Expedition 38 crew on the station.
It was the year's 14th R-7 launch and the 4th Progress.
Eight of the R-7 launches were in support of ISS.
Launches Remote Sensing Satellite
China's 20th CZ-2D lofted Shiyan Weixing 5, a high
resolution remote sensing satellite, into a 739 x 755 km x 98 deg sun synchronous orbit on
November 25, 2013. Liftoff from Jiuquan LC 43 Pad 603 took place at 02:12 UTC.
It was the second CZ-2D launch of the year and the 11th
Chang Zheng family launch.
Orbits ESA Swarm Satellites
A Rockot/Briz KM successfully lofted a trio of European
Space Agency Swarm satellites into low earth orbit from Plesetsk Cosmodrome on November
22, 2013. The Swarm satellites, each weighing 473 kg, will map dynamics of the
Earth's magnetic field from slightly differing orbits.
The three stage rocket, its first two stages from a
retired RS-18/SS-19 ICBM, lifted off at 12:02 UTC from Area 133/Pad 3. After the
first two stages burned and fell away, the Briz KM third stage performed an initial burn
to place itself and its payloads into a 153 x 476 km parking orbit. The vehicle
coasted for about an hour to apogee before the stage performed a 16 second long second
burn to enter a 490 km x 87.55 circular orbit. Satellite deployment occurred at
13:33 UTC. The Swarm satellites will use their own cold gas Freon thrusters to
manuever to operational orbits.
It was the third Rokot launch of 2013 and the 18th
success in 20 attempts since 1994. The first launch used a Briz K stage.
Subsequent flights used the current, upgraded Briz KM, beginning in 2000.
Orbits Satellite Cluster
A Ukrainian built Dnepr launch vehicle orbited 32 small
satellites on November 21, 2013 after rising from an underground missile silo at
Dombarovsky missile base near Yasny, Russia. Liftoff from LC 370/13 took place at
07:10 UTC. The three-stage storable propellant rocket, a retired R-36MU/SS-18 ICBM,
reached a sun sunchronous low earth orbit several minutes later.
Most of the satellites were CubeSats weighing less than 5 kg.
Two thirds of them were deployed from the rocket's modified multiple reentry
vehicle warhead "bus"third stage. Kosmotras, a Russian-Ukrainian company,
oversaw the payload portion of the launch while Russian military forces performed the
launch. Among the larger satellites deployed conventionally were DubaiSat2, a South
Korean/Emirates earth observation satellite and SkySat 1, a commercial imager for
California's Skybox Imaging.
It was the year's second Dnepr launch of 2013 and the 19th Dnepr
launch attempt since the type entered service in 1999.
A Chang Zheng 4C rocket orbited China's Yaogan 19 satellite from Taiyuan Satellite
Launch Center on November 20, 2013. The three-stage rocket lifted off at 03:31 UTC
from the center's Launch Complex 9. The liftoff was not announced in advanced."
China's state media stated that the satellite, which entered a roughly 1,200 km x
100.48 deg orbit, was an earth observation spacecraft designed to "conduct scientific
experiments, carry out land surveys, monitor crop yields and aid in preventing and
reducing natural disasters". Western analysts belive that the satellite and
others like it are also used for military reconnaissance. Some believe that Yaogan
19 in particular carries a high resolution camera.
1 ORS-3 Launch
The 11th Orbital Sciences Minotaur 1 launch vehicle
carried 29 satellites into orbit from Wallops Island, Virginia on November 20, 2013.
Payloads included the primary STPSat 3 satellite and 28 CubeSats provided by NASA and by
university and high school students. Total payload mass was 400.68 kg.
The four stage all solid motor rocket lifted off from
Pad 0B at 01:15 UTC with the third Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) mission for the
U.S. military. Called "The Enabler Mission", ORS-3 demonstrated automated
launch vehicle trajectory targeting and range safety processes. These methods are
intended to decrease launch costs.
Initial boost was provided by two repurposed Minuteman
II missile stage motors (an M55A1 first stage and an SR19 second stage) fired
sequentially. An Orion 50XL motor performed the third stage burn, then remained
attached to the fourth stage during a more than 5.5 minute coast. About 10 minutes
14 seconds after liftoff, the rocket's Orion 38 fourth stage completed its burn to insert
the Integrated Payload Stack into a 500 km x 40.5 deg orbit.
STPSat 3 separated about 12.2 minutes after liftoff.
CubeSat deployment was expected to take place in stages during the subsequent 10
It was the the final Minotaur launch under the initial
Orbital/Suborbital Program-1 and -2 contracts. No Minotaur 1 launches are currently
planned, but future launches are theoretically possible under the OSP-3 contract.
Minotaur 1 uses upper stages and flight control systems from Pegasus XL, another rocket
that currently has no future launches backlogged. More powerful, Peacekeeper-based
Minotaur 4 and 5 rockets have flown more often than Minotaur 1 and Pegasus in recent
MAVEN Toward Mars
Atlas 5 tail number AV-038 launched NASA's Mars
Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft into a trans-Mars solar orbit from
Cape Canaveral, Florida on November 18, 2013. The two-stage, Russian-engined rocket
lifted off from Space Launch Complex 41 at 18:28 UTC and quickly disappeared into a low
cloud cover. After the first stage completed its 4 minute 2 second long portion of
the ascent, the Centaur second stage took over to perform two burns of its Aerojet
Rocketdyne RL10A-4-2 LOX/LH2 engine.
The first 9.5 minute long Centaur burn placed AV-038 into a 161 x 315 km x 26.665 deg
parking orbit, where it coasted for 27 minutes, 36 seconds before the second burn.
The second burn was planned to be about 5.5 minutes in duration, but ran about four
Centaur propelled the 2.54 tonne Lockheed Martin-built spacecraft and its Centaur stage
into a solar orbit that will intersect with the orbit of Mars in ten months. MAVEN
will insert itself into orbit around Mars to study the Martian atmosphere for one year.
After its primary mission is complete, MAVEN will serve as a data relay station for
NASA's other Mars exploring spacecraft.
AV-038 was the 41st Atlas 5 and the fifth to perform a solar orbit mission. MAVEN
was the third Mars exploration launch by an Atlas 5.
Milcomsat Boosted by Proton M/Briz M
A Proton-M/Briz-M launched Russia's Raduga 1M (13L), a
military communications satellite, from Baikonur Cosmodrome on November 11, 2013.
The four-stage rocket lifted off from Area 81 Pad 24 at 23:46 UTC. Its hypergolic
propellant Briz M upper stage performed four burns during a 9-plus hour mission to lift
the 2.3 tonne satellite directly into geosynchronous orbit.
It was the year's 20th orbital launch attempt from
Baikonur, a dozen more than current second-place Cape Canaveral, Florida.
Launches ISS Crew
Russia's Soyuz TMA-11M spacecraft was launched into low
earth orbit with three crew members by a specially decorated Soyuz FG rocket from Baikonur
Cosmodrome on November 7, 2013. Liftoff frrom Area 1 Pad 5 took place at 04:14
UTC. Aboard were Russia's Mikhail Tyurin, NASA's Rick Mastracchio, and Japan's
Koichi Wakata. They joined Russia's Oleg Kotov, Sergey Ryazanskiy, and Fyodor
Yurchiknin, NASA's Michael Hopkins and Karen Nyberg, and European Space Agency's Luca
Parmitano on the International Space Station.
The Soyuz launch schedule was rearranged in order to
send the Olympic torch to ISS as part of the torch relay for the Winter Games in Sochi in
February, 2014. As a result, an atypical three Soyuz spacecraft were expected to be
docked to ISS for several days until the Soyuz TMA-09M crew (Yurchikhin, Parmitano and
Nyberg) return to Earth with the Olympic torch on November 10. The returning crew
has been at ISS since May 28.
Like three previous Soyuz missions, TMA-11M used a four
orbit, six hour ascent to the station. It was the year's 14th R-7 launch and was the
fourth crewed Soyuz flight of 2013.
India Aims for Mars
India's Space Research Organization launched a
spacecraft designed to orbit Mars from Satish Dhawan Space Center on Sriharikota Island on
November 5, 2013. PSLV-C25, the fifth PSLV-XL rocket, lifted off from the First
Launch Pad at 09:08 UTC to boost the 1,337 kg Mars Orbiter Mission satellite into an
elliptical Earth orbit measuring 246 x 23,566 km x 19.2 deg. Plans call for the
satellite to perform a series of perigee burns using its own propulsion system during the
next several weeks. The probe will raise its orbital velocity (and apogee) with each
burn until propelling itself into solar orbit with a sixth and final burn on or around
For the first time, a PSLV mission performed an extended
coast prior to ignition of its hypergolic fueled fourth stage about 35 minutes after
liftoff. This was required to provide the orbital alignment needed for an ultimate
trans-Mars insertion trajectory. PSLV had to be modified with new guidance software,
additional batteries, and other changes to handle the 44 minute long mission. Ship
based tracking terminals also had to be deployed to provide telemetry links during the
It was the 25th PSLV launch and the 21st consecutive
CZ-2C Orbits Yaogan
A Chang Zheng (Long March) 2C launch vehicle orbited China's
Yaogan 18 satellite from the Taiyuan space center in northern China on October 29,
2013. The two-stage rocket lifted off from LC 9 at 02:50 UTC. Yaogan 18
separated into a 492 x 510 km x 97.6 deg sun synchronous orbit.
The satellite is believed by some analysts to be the third in a
series of synthetic aperture radar satellites. China's state media identified Yaogan
18 to be a remote sensing spacecraft that will perform scientific experiments, land
survey, crop yield assessment, and disaster monitoring.
China did not announce the launch before it occurred. It
was the second CZ-2C launch of 2013, the ninth CZ launch of the year, and the 10th orbital
launch by China since January 1.
Proton/Sirius FM 6 Launch
A Proton M/Briz M boosted Sirius FM 6 to geosynchronous
transfer orbit from Baikonur Cosmodrome on October 25, 2013. Liftoff from Area 200
Pad 39 took place at 18:08 UTC, beginning a 9-plus hour mission that included five burns
of the Briz M fourth stage.
Sirius FM 6 weighed 6,003 kg at liftoff. Built by
Canadian-owned Space Systems Loral on 1300 series spacecraft bus, Siurius FM 6 will
provide satellite radio services for Sirius XM Radio of New York.
It was the 390th Proton launch since the program began
in 1965, and the seventh Proton liftoff of 2013.
A three-stage Chang Zheng (Long March) 4B rocket
launched China's Shijian 16 satellite into orbit from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
on October 25, 2013. The unannounced liftoff from SLS 2 (LC 43/Pad 603) took place
at 03:50 UTC. After the satellite reached an approximately 600 km x 75 deg orbit,
China's state media announced the launch and reported that the satellite would provide
space environment measurements and technology testing.
It was the first flight of a CZ-4B from Jiuquan,
although three similar CZ-4C launch vehicles, which use a restartable version of the CZ-4B
third stage, have previously flown from Jiuquan. The CZ-4 family has one of the
world's most reliable launch records, with 33 successes and no failures.
Less than three months after it suffered a dramatic July
2 failure, Russia's Proton returned to commercial service by launching the Astra 2E
communications satellite from Baikonur Cosmodrome on September 29, 2013. The 389th
Proton, a Proton M topped by a Briz M fourth stage, lifted off from Area 200 Pad 39 at
21:38 UTC. Astra 2E, a 6.02 tonne Astrium E3000 series communications satellite, was
to be lofted into geosynchronous transfer orbit using a five-burn Briz M mission expected
to last 9 hours 12 minutes.
Three-stage Proton reached a suborbital trajectory. Briz
M performed its first burn to achieve a circular parking orbit. A second burn
accelerated the stage and payload to an intermediate orbit. Third and fourth burns
acheived a transfer orbit. The final burn was expected to move Astra 2E into a 4,202
x 35,736 km x 23 deg geosynchronous transfer orbit.
Astra 2E will provide Ku- and Ka-band services in
Europe, the Middle East and Africa for Europe's SES.
Falcon 9 v1.1
SpaceX Corporation successfully launched its first
Falcon 9 v1.1 launch vehicle from Vandenberg AFB on September 29, 2013. The two-stage
kerosene fueled rocket, much longer and heavier and with more powerful engines than its
five Falcon 9 predecessors, and equipped for the first time with a payload fairing, lifted
off from rebuilt Space Launch Complex 4 East at 16:00 UTC on a demonstration mission with
Canada's 500 kg Cassiope and with five small cubesats that together weighed about 100 kg.
The second stage and satellites were aimed south toward a planned 300 x 1,500 km x 80 deg
It was the first SpaceX launch from the Western U.S. launch center, a site typically used
for near polar orbital missions. The company extensively rebuilt SLC 4E, previously used
for Titan 4, creating a flat pad with a massive wheeled transporter-erector that rolls
from a horizontal assembly hanger nearby.
Falcon 9-006 lifted off on 600 tonnes of liftoff thrust produced by nine Merlin 1D
engines. This was the first flight test of the new Merlin 1D, a gas generator engine
designed from the outset to be mass produced. Falcon 9 v1.1 presented a unique sight as it
rose, with the highest "fineness ratio" (length divided by width) of any large
rocket currently flying. Two of the first stage engines shut down as planned shortly
before the remaining seven cut off some time around the planned 2 minute 43 second mark.
The second stage separated and ignited its new Vacuum Merlin 1D, beginning a more than
six-minute long burn. The composite payload fairing was jettisonned at about the 3 minute
37 second mark.
Merlin 1D Engines Gleam in the Morning Sunlight
Prior to Liftoff
After second stage cutoff, SpaceX ended its launch
webcast as the stage flew out of tracking range. About 30 minutes later, word came
that Cassiope and the cubesats had separated as planned beginning more than 14 minutes
SpaceX performed a test re-ignition of three of the first stage engines after staging,
about 7 minutes 45 seconds after liftoff, in a demonstration of a reentry velocity
reduction that might be used for stage recovery in the future. This burn and the reentry
went as expected.
A second re-ignition of only the center engine also
initiated as planned shortly before impact with the Pacific Ocean, but roll rates on the
stage quickly exceeded the control ability of the reaction control system. The roll
rate pushed propellant toward the tank edges, causing the engine to shut down. The
stage fell, impacted the ocean, and broke into pieces. A recovery ship was able to
haul aboard some floating pieces of the stage. SpaceX head Elon Musk was pleased
with the results of the experiment, which he said moved SpaceX closer to recovery of
stages in the future.
The second stage was also expected to perform a restart after spacecraft separation that
would burn to propellant depletion. This planned "disposal burn" failed
during engine restart. Elon Musk reported that the cause of the anomaly was
understood and would be fixed before the next launch, when a restart would be necessary to
insert SES 8 into a geosynchronous transfer orbit.
Cyguns Reaches ISS
After a delayed, 11 day wait, Orbital's Cygnus ORB-D1
spacecraft successfully berthed at ISS on September 29, 2013. The cargo hauling
spacecraft had loitered in orbit awaiting rendezvous for several days to solve issues that
arose involving diverging GPS location updates between ISS and Cygnus during an initial
rendezvous attempt on September 21. Orbital engineers uploaded a software patch to
reslove the GPS "data roll-over discrepancy". In the mean time, Soyuz
TMA-10M was launched to the station with three crewmembers on September 25.
Launches ISS Crew
A Soyuz FG rocket launched the Russian Soyuz TMA-10M
spacecraft into low earth orbit with three crew members from Baikonur Cosmodrome on
September 25, 2013. Liftoff frrom Area 1 Pad 5 took place at 20:58 UTC. Aboard
were Russia's Oleg Kotov and Sergey Ryazanskiy and NASA'sMichael Hopkins.
They will join Russia's Fyodor Yurchikhin, European Space
Agency's Luca Parmitano and NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg on the International Space
Station. Plans call for the TMA-10M crew to stay at ISS for 167 days.
Soyuz TMA-10M was aimed toward a four orbit, six hour
ascent to ISS, the third use of the fast track ascent for crewed Soyuz spacecraft.
It was the year's third R-7 crewed launch to ISS, and the 10th
launch by any launch vehicle, manned or unmanned, to the station in 2013, though the 9th
launched mission, Orbital's Cygnus ORB-D1, continues to loiter in orbit awaiting
rendezvous with ISS after experiencing diverging GPS location updates between ISS and
Cygnus during its first attempt on September 21. Orbital engineers have, in the mean
time, uploaded a software patch to reslove the GPS "data roll-over discrepancy".
It was the 35th launch of a Soyuz FG rocket flying in
2.5 stage form, a type that began flying in 2001. With no failures, this 35th
success moves Soyuz FG to the top spot, marginally, in the Space Launch Report reliability rankings.
China Launches New Rocket
China launched a previously unknown quick response
orbital launch vehicle named "Kuaizhou" ("Quick Vessel") on September
25, 2013 from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center. Liftoff occurred at 04:37 UTC.
The specific launch site was not announced. A small satellite named "Kuaizhou
1", identified to be a "natural disaster monitoring satellite", was
inserted into a 276 x 193 km x 96.65 deg orbit during the launch.
Kuaizhou is believed to be a small solid fuel based
launched vehicle developed by China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC).
It may be based on the DF-21/25 or DF-31 solid fuel ballistic missiles already in
China's inventory. Since those missiles are road mobile, the launch may have been
performed from a mobile transporter erector launcher from a flat pad at Jiuquan.
China attempted to develop a DF-31 based solid fuel
orbital launch vehicle named KT-1 about ten years ago, but KT-1 failed in two test
flights. The country then developed a DF-21 based ASAT launch vehicle named KT-2
that it used to destroy a satellite in orbit in 2007. On May 13, 2013, China
launched another unknown solid fuel rocket on an extremely high altitude suborbital launch
China Orbits Weather Satellite
A three stage Chang Zheng (Long March) 4C launch vehicle
successfully orbited the Fengyun 3C weather satellite from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center
in northern China's Shanxi province on September 23, 2013. The 2.45 tonne satellite
was injected into an 870 km sun synchronous, near polar orbit. Liftoff took place at
03:07 UTC from the second CZ pad (Launch Complex 9) at Taiyuan.
Two previous Fengyun 3 launches occurred in 2008 and
Two U.S. East Coast Launches
Atlas 5 (Left) and Antares/Cygnus (Right) Fly on
Two successful orbital launches took place from the east
coast of the United States within a seven hour span on September 18, 2013. The first
launch, at 08:10 UTC by the 40th Atlas 5, carried AEFH 3, a military communications
satellite, into supersynchronous transfer orbit from Cape Canaveral Florida. The second
launch, performed at 14:58 UTC by an Orbital Sciences Antares 110 launch vehicle from
Wallops Island, Virginia, boosted the first Cygnus cargo carrier into low earth orbit
bound for a demonstration mission to the International Space Station.
Both launches used kerosene fueled first stages powered by Russian built staged combustion
AEFH 3, a Lockheed Martin A2100 series satellite, was the third Advanced Extremely High
Frequency satellite to fly. It weighed 6,169 kg at liftoff. The Atlas 5-531 launch
vehicle, fitted with three solid boosters and a five meter fairing, lofted AEFH 3 into a
225 x 50,000 km x 20.9 deg transfer orbit using a two-burn Centaur upper stage ascent
profile. Satellite separation occurred about 51 minutes after the pre-dawn liftoff from
Space Launch Complex 41.
The Antares/Cygnus launch took place from Pad 0A at Wallops Island. Cygnus consisted of an
Orbital Sciences-built propulsion module and a cylindrical cargo module built by Thales
Alenia Space in Italy. For this "ORB-D1" mission, Cygnus weighed about
4,100 kg. Its pressurized cargo module had about 18 cubic meters of internal volume,
which was partially filled with 700 kg of cargo for the Expedition 37 crew. The
spacecraft used a Japanese-built IHI BT-4 main thruster that produced 45.4 kgf thrust, 32
Aerojet Rocketdyne control thrusters that each produced 2.7 kgf thrust, and twin solar
panels built by EADS Astrium Dutch Space.
Cygnus will perform a four day check out mission before
being allowed to approach ISS for capture and berthing by the station's robot arm.
It was the second and final launch of an Antares 110 variant, which uses an ATK Castor 30A
solid fueled second stage motor. The next two Antares/Cygnus launches will use Antares 120
rockets with higher performing Castor 30B motors. Subsequent launches will use Antares 130
rockets with substantially more powerful Castor 30XL motors.
Antare's Ukrainian-built, Russian-powered first stage performed a 3 minute 53 second burn.
The upper stage stack separated and coasted for 1 minute 36 seconds to an altitude of 189
km before the second stage ignited for its 155 second burn. Cygnus separated about 10
minutes after liftoff into a 255 x 288 km x 51.64 deg orbit.
It was the third of four planned orbital launches from Wallops Island this year.
Japan's new Epsilon launch vehicle scored an inaugural
success on September 14, 2013 when it boosted Sprint-A (Spectroscopic Planet Observatory
for Recognition of Interaction of Atmosphere) into orbit from the Uchinoura Space Center,
Kagoshima on the island of Kyushu. The 348 kg orbiting telescope was aimed toward a
950 x 1,150 km x 31 deg. orbit. Sprint-A will study ineractions of the solar wind
with the atmospheres and magnetoshpheres of Mars, Venus, and Jupiter at extreme
On this flight, the first stage burned for 112 seconds,
the second stage for 102 seconds, and the third stage for 89 seconds. The vehicle
coasted for 53 seconds between the first and second stage burn and for 361 seconds between
the second and third stage burn. Epsilon coasted for another 140 seconds after third
stage burnout before the hydrazine fueled "Post Boost Stage" (PBS) separated and
ignited. On this flight, the PBS performed a nearly 11 minute long initial burn and
a 6.5 minute long second burn that were separated by a 23 minute long coast.
Sprint-A separated 61 minutes 39 seconds after liftoff.
Once on orbit, Sprint-A was given the nickname
"Hisaki", which means "beyond the sun" in Japanese.
The success followed an August 27 last second aborted
attempt that was found to have been caused by latent sensor signal delays that spoofed the
ground launch launch control program.
Epsilon was designed to reduce the cost of scientific
satellite launches compared to its M-V predecessor. Japan Aerospace Exploration
Agency (JAXA) began development of "Epsilon" in 2006 to continue the
long-running tradition of smaller, lower cost "Mu" series orbital launchers that
the Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences (ISAS) had managed. Formerly
independant ISAS became the Space Science Research Disvision of JAXA on October
Epsilon uses three solid motors and an optional
"Post Boost Stage" (PBS), or "Compact Liquid Propulsion System" (CLPS)
fourth stage. The first stage is a modified SRB-A motor, weighing 74.4 tonnes and
similar to the 230 tonne thrust monolithic boosters used by JAXA's H-2A and H-2B launch
vehicles. The second stage is an 11.6 tonne M-34c motor, a modified version of the
M-5 rocket's third stage that uses an extendible nozzle. A small KM-V-2b solid
motor, derived from the M-5 fourth stage motor and weighing 3 tonnes serves as the third
stage. Epsilon weighs 91 tonnes at liftoff.
A 2.5 meter diameter payload fairing enclosed Sprint-A
and the third and fourth stages. The PBS provides orbit trimming and raising
manuevers on some missions. With CLPS, Epsilon can lift 700 kg to a 500 km x 30 deg
orbit, or 450 km to a 500 km sun synchronous orbit. Without CLPS, Epsilon can boost
1.2 tonnes into a 250 x 500 km x 30 deg orbit.
Flies from Plesetsk
A Rokot/Briz KM launched from Area 133 Pad 3 at Plesetsk
space center in northern Russia at 23:23 UTC on September 11, 2013. The three stage
liquid fueled rocket carried three Gonets-M data relay satellites into roughly 1,500 km x
82.5 deg orbits. The satellites weighed about 280 kg each. The Briz-KM thired
stage performed two burns before spacecraft separation. Its first burn began about five
minutes after liftoff and lasted for about 9.5 minutes to insert the vehicle into an
elliptical parking orbit. The second, circulization burn began about 74 minutes after
liftoff near apogee and lasted for about 53 seconds.
The launch was the first for Rokot since a January 15
flight that experienced problems with the Briz KM upper stage. On that mission,
three Strela 3M satellites separated into apparently correct, or nearly correct, orbits,
but the Briz KM stage then went into safe mode and failed to perform its planned collision
avoidance and deorbit burns.
It was the year's 50th announced orbital launch attempt.
At least one additional, unannounced, failed attempt is suspected to have taken
place from Iran earlier this year, but is not currently listed on the Space Launch Report
Minotaur 5 Launches Lunar Orbiter
Orbital Science's first Minotaur 5 successfully flung NASA's 383 kg Lunar Atmosphere and
Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) into a highly elliptical Earth orbit from Wallops
Island, Virginia on September 7, 2013. The five-stage solid fuel rocket lifted off from
Pad 0B (Zero B) at 03:27 UTC, beginning a 23.5 minute launch phase.
Minotaur 5's first four stages, comprising a retired three-stage Peacekeeper missile
topped by a Star 48BV fourth stage, fired to lift LADEE into a low Earth orbit. The stages
burned for 57, 61, 72, and 84 seconds, respectively, with a 20 second coast between Stages
2 and 3 and a nearly four minute coast between Stages 3 and 4.
Stage 4 burnout occurred 8 minutes 47 seconds after
liftoff. After a roughly 6.5 minute coast period, the Star 37FM fifth stage was spun up to
about 1 RPM for stabilization and ignited to accelerate LADEE toward a planned 200 x
278,000 km x 37.6 deg orbit. Stage 5 burnout occurred 18 minutes after liftoff. Spacecraft
separation took place about 5.5 minutes later, after LADEE and the empty fifth stage were
LADEE is expected to complete about 3.5 highly
elliptical "phasing" orbits during the next 23 days. LADEE will fire its own
propulsion system to move toward the Moon and to eventually enter lunar orbit. The
spacecraft, developed by NASA's Ames Research Center, will measure lunar dust suspended in
the near-lunar region.
It was the
first Peacekeeper based launch from Wallops Flight Facility. Orbital had previously
performed four Minuteman-based Minotaur 1 launches from the same launch pad. It was the
first Minotaur 5 launch from any site.
Minotaur 3, 4, and 5 all use three retired Peacekeeper (MX) missile motors (Thiokol
SR-118, Aerojet SR-119, and Hercules SR-120) to power the first three stages. All
three three stages use a single thrust vector actuator controlled movable nozzle for two
axis flight control. The first stage produces 227 tonnes of thrust at liftoff.
The second stage produces an average of 124.7 tonnes of thrust. The third
stage produces 29.5 tonnes of thrust. The second and third stages both use an
"Minotaur 4 Lite", uses only the first three
stages for suborbital missions. A Minotaur 3 variant was offered that would have
topped the MX stages with a "Super HAPS" monopropellant hydrazine propulsion
fourth stage, but this variant hasn't flown. Minotaur 4 adds an Orion 38 fourth
stage. A "Minotaur 4+" version with a Star 48V fourth stage has also
flown. Minotaur 5 adds a Star 37FM fifth stage to the Minotaur 4+ design. The
five-stage variant weighs about 88 tonnes at liftoff. With a liftoff thrust to
weight ratio of about 2.5, the rocket springs off of its elevated concrete launch stand.
Five Minotaur 4 series launches have occurred since the
program began in 2010. Two were suborbital Minotaur 4 Lite missions from Vandenberg AFB.
The other three flew to orbit, one from Vandenberg AFB and two from Kodiak in Alaska.
Fifty-one Peacekeeper test flights took place between 1983 and 2003, with one 50
successes. Three additional SR-118 motors were used successfully on early Taurus
A Chang Zheng 4C launch vehicle orbited three satellites
as part of China's Yaogan Weixing 17 mission on September 1, 2013. The launch from
the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center took place at 19:16 UTC from the Left, or 603 launch
pad, of the South Launch Site (SLS), or LC43 launch complex. The satellites entered
a 1,079 x 1,108 km x 63.4 deg orbit.
Yaogan Weixing 17 includes three satellites that China's
official media identified as remote sensing spacecraft for scientific experiments, land
survey, crop yield assessment, and disaster monitoring. Western analysts note that
the satelites fly in formation in a manner similar to the U.S. NOSS system used to track
It was China's sixth orbital launch of 2013.
Zenit Returns to Flight
A Land Launch Zenit 3SLB rocket lifted off with
Israels AMOS 4 telecommunications satellite from Baikonur Cosmodrome on August 31,
2013. It was the first Yuzhnoe-built Zenit flight since the
February 1, 2013 Sea Launch failure that destroyed the Intelsat 27 communications
Liftoff from Area 45 Pad 1 took place at 20:05 UTC,
starting a nearly six-hour mission that included three burns of the RSC Energia Blok
DM-SLB upper stage. 3.5 tonne AMOS 4 was aimed toward a planned 3,090 x 35,786 km x
26.85 deg geosynchronous transfer orbit.
The February 1 failure occurred shortly after liftoff
from the Sea Launch Odyssey launch platform in the Pacific Ocean, when first stage RD-171
main engine nozzle thrust vectoring failed, causing an emergency engine shutdown. An
investigation concluded that the failure was isolated to the Zenit 3SL first stage
hydraulic power supply unit, a device identified as "BIM". Corrective
action did not involve any design changes to the flight hardware, but instead focused on
additional standalone inspections and testing of the BIM prior to installation into the
Zenit 1st stage engine compartment.
AMOS 4, a 3.5 tonne satellite, was manufactured by
Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) for Spacecom. It will provide high power Ka and Ku
band service for the Israeli government and for commercial customers.
Ariane 5 Lofts Two Communication Satellites
Ariane 5 ECA vehicle number L570 hauled two more
communication satellites into orbit, one for Europe and Qatar and one for India, from
Kourou Space Center on August 29, 2013. The VA215 Arianespace mission carried
EUTELSAT 25B/Eshail 1 and India's GSAT-7 into geosynchronous transfer orbit after a
20:30 UTC liftoff from ELA 3.
The Space Systems/Loral (SSL)-built EUTELSAT
25B/Eshail 1 is a Space Systems/Loral 1300 series satellite that weighed 6,310 kg at
launch. It rode atop the Sylda payload dispenser and was deployed first. The
satellite will serve Europe's Eutelsat Communications and Qatars EshailSat
Satellite Company. GSAT-7, which rode within Sylda, is a 2,650 kg satellite
developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
Delta 4 Heavy
Orbits NRO Reconnaissance Satellite
A Delta 4 Heavy lifted off from Vandenberg AFB Space
Launch Complex 6 on August 28, 2013 with NROL-65, believed to be an electro-optical
reconnaissance satellite for the National Reconnaissance Office. Liftoff took place
at 18:03 UTC.
Analysts believe that the satellite is most likely the
latest in a long line of "Key Hole" spy satellites typically lofted into sun
synchronous low earth orbits. The most recent versions are thought to weigh 13 to 17
tonnes and to look like a "stubby" version of the Hubble Space Telescope.
Lockheed Martin builds the satellites. A variety of code names have been suggested
for these secret satellites, including KH-11, KH-12, Kennen, Crystal, Advanced Crystal,
It was the 24th Delta 4 and the seventh Delta 4 Heavy.
The rocket was the fifth Delta 4 and second Delta 4 Heavy to fly from Vandenberg
During liftoff, the three RS-68 core engines were
started in a staggered sequence for the first time. The starboard RS-68 ignited two
seconds before the center and port engines in an attept to reduce the peak amount of
hydrogen gas accumulation around the rocket during engine start. The resulting
ignition fireball effect was noticably reduced compared to the first Delta 4 Heavy liftoff
After spacecraft separation, the five-meter Delta
Cryogenic Upper Stage was expected to fire to de-orbited itself into the Pacific Ocean
after completing about one orbit of the planet.
Orbits South Korean Radarsat
Dnepr, a converted Russian R-36MUTTH "Satan"
ICBM, successfully orbited South Korea's Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (KompSat) 5 from
the Dombarovsky Yasny Launch Base in western Russia on August, 22, 2013. The
three-stage missile was ejected from its Site 370/13 underground silo at 14:39 UTC.
The 1.4 tonne radar imaging satellite separated from the third stage about 15 minutes 14
seconds later and entered a 550 km x 97.6 deg sun synchronous orbit. The Korea
Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) developed the satellite.
It was the first Dnepr orbital
launch since 2011, and the 18th orbital launch attempt all told since the program began in
Delta 4 Launches
The 23rd Delta 4 launch vehicle, a Delta 4M+5,4 with four solid rocket motors and a five
meter diameter Delta cryogenic second stage (DCSS), lofted Wideband Global SATCOM No. 6
into supersynchronous transfer orbit from Cape Canaveral Florida on August 8, 2013. The
66.3 meter tall liquid hydrogen fueled rocket lifted off from Space Launch Complex 37B at
00:29 UTC in a near repeat of a May 25 mission from the same pad.
DCSS performed two burns. The first placed the vehicle in a 185 x 6,852 km x 25.6 deg
parking orbit about 20 minutes after liftoff. After an eight minute coast, the second,
3-minute long burn pushed the 5.987 tonne Boeing 702 series satellite into a 439 x 66,894
km x 24 deg transfer orbit. Spacecraft separation occurred 40 minutes 47 seconds after
WGS-6 will provide 500 MHz range, X-band, and 1 GHz range (Ka-band) communication links
for the Australian Defence Force on a mission that was funded by Australia. It can
support up to 3.6 Gbps data transmission rates.
It was only the second Delta 4 launch of 2013.
H-2B Orbits ISS
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) fourth H-2B
rocket orbited HTV-4, an ISS cargo transfer vehicle, from Tanegashima Space Center's
Yoshinobu Launch Pad 2 on August 3, 2013. The 2.5 stage rocket lifted off at 19:48
UTC and flew a direct ascent to a 200 x 300 km x 51.6 deg orbit. The 15.9 tonne
HTV-4 separated about 15 minutes 11 seconds after liftoff.
After spacecraft separation, the second stage performed
a controlled reentry test by re-igniting its LE-5B-2 engine to decelerate itself below
H-2B uses a 5.2 meter diameter LH2/LOX fueled core
stage, powered by two LE-7A engines. The LH2/LOX two-stage core is augmented by four
SRB-A strap on motors. A 5.1 meter diameter payload fairing is used for HTV
flights. The 56.6 meter tall rocket weighs 531 tonnes at lift off.
Three more H-2B/HTV launches are planned before the end
of the program in 2016. The future of Japan's biggest rocket after those flights is
M-20M Launched Toward International Space Station
A Russian Soyuz U rocket orbited ISS cargo ship Progress
M-20M from Baikonur Cosmodrome on July 27, 2013. Liftoff from Area 31 Pad 6 took
place at 20:45 UTC. The 7-plus tonne spacecraft entered a low earth orbit inclined
51.65 degrees to the equator. Plans called for Progress to dock to ISS after a
six-hour, four-orbit ascent.
Known as Progress 52P on NASA ledgers, the spacecraft
was loaded at the last minute with spacesuit repair tools to aid in troubleshooting a leak
that occurred in ESA astronaut Luca Parmitano's helment during a July 16 spacewalk.
It was the third Progress and the 11th R-7 launch of the
year. It was also the first launch from Baikonur since the spectacular July 2 Proton
Ariane 5 Orbits
Two Communication Satellites
The 70th Ariane 5, an Ariane 5 ECA, carried two
communication satellites into orbit, one for Europe and one for India, from Kourou Space
Center on July 25, 2013. The VA214 Arianespace mission carried Europes largest
ever telecommunications satellite, Alphasat, and Indias newest meteorological
spacecraft, Insat-3D. The 2.5 stage rocket lifted off from ELA 3 at 19:54 UTC.
Both satellites separated into geosynchronous transfer orbit near the end of the 33 minute
Alphasat, the result of a partnership between the European Space Agency (ESA) and operator
Inmarsat, weighed 6,650 kg at launch. It was the first Alphabus platform
satellite jointly developed by Astrium and Thales Alenia Space.
Insat 3D, carried inside the Sylda carrier, weighed
2,120 kg. ISRO developed the satellite.
Chang Zheng 4C
Launches Satellite Trio
China orbited three experimental military satellites
from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center on July 19, 2013. A Chang Zheng 4C (Long
March 4C) performed the launch at 23:37 UTC. The three satellites named Chuang
Xin-3 ("Innovation"), Shiyan Weixing-7, and Shijian-15
("Practice"), were inserted into sun synchronous low earth orbits with altitudes
of about 660 to 670 km.
It was the year's fifth CZ launch for China.
Atlas 5 Launches
An Atlas 5-551 with five strap on solid motors
and a five meter diameter payload fairing, lifted the second of five planned U.S. Navy
Mobile User Objective System (MUOS 2) communications satellites into orbit from Cape
Canaveral, Florida on July 19, 2013. Liftoff from Space Launch Complex 41 took
place at at 13:00 UTC. The rocket's Centaur upper stage performed three burns during
a nearly 3 hour mission to lift MUOS 2 toward a planned 35,787 x 3,802 km x 19.1 deg
geosynchronous transfer orbit.
At approximately 6.8 tonnes, the MUOS
satellites are the heaviest known payloads launched by an Atlas 5, though the mass of
several secret national security payloads was never published. Jim Sponnick,
ULA's vice President of its Atlas and Delta programs, said in pre-launch comments that
MUOS 2 would be the "heaviest satellite launched to date by an Atlas 5".
That comment seems to cap the mass of any NRO or other secret satellite launched by Atlas,
though the comment would not necessarily apply to the total mass of any multisatellite
payloads that may have been orbited.
Lockheed Martin Space Systems is the MUOS
prime contractor. The satellites provide narrowband tactical voice
and data communications and are equipped with a 14-meter diameter reflecting mesh
antenna to provide links to ground-based users.
It was the fifth Atlas 5 of 2013 and the first
of the year fitted with strap-on solid motors. The launch marked the 39th Atlas 5
mission and the fourth by the most-powerful Atlas 5-551 variant.
CZ-2C Orbits Experimental Satellite
China launched a satellite with an
unspecified mission from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center on July 15, 2013. The
satellite, named Shijian 11-05, was described as an "experimental" satellite by
Chinese media. A CZ-2C performed the launch at 09:27 UTC from Launch Area 4 Left,
officially known as Launch Complex 43, Launch Pad 603.
Shijian 11-05, built by DongFangHong Satellite Company
of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corp, was inserted into a sun synchronous
low earth orbit. Such orbits are typically used by earth observation, weather, and
defense reconnaissance satellites.
It was the year's fourth Chang Zheng
launch, and was the 39th CZ-2C liftoff.
Proton Fails Seconds After Liftoff (Updated
A Proton M with a Blok DM-03 upper stage suffered a
frightening failure moments after lifting off from Baikonur Cosmodrome on July 2,
2013. The Krunichev built rocket, topped by an RSC Energia built Blok DM-03 and
carrying three Russian Glonass M navigation satellites, rose from Pad 24 at Area 81 for a
few seconds before turning left, then hard right while rolling rapidly, entering a giant
loop, turning upside down, and plummeting to the earth 1 to 2 km east/southeast from the
pad. A massive explosion and fire occurred upon impact.
Liftoff took place at 02:38 UTC. It was the first
failure during the Proton phase of flight since 2007, though a series of upper stage
failures involving the Krunichev Briz M stage have plagued the rocket in recent years.
It was the 388th Proton launch and the 45th failure, though many of those failures
were during the rocket's early years. Since 1990, inclusive, Proton has flown 206
times and suffered 16 failures, of which six involved the first three "Proton"
stages of the rocket. The other 10 failures involved various types of fourth stages.
Early reports about details of the failure conflicted.
One report said that one of the six first stage engines had vectored out of
position with a failed steering system, causing loss of flight control. Another
report said that the rocket had lifted off 0.4 seconds early. An emergency engine
cutoff signal had reportedly been issued at either T+17 seconds or T+4 seconds, but video
showed all six engines burning as the rocket tumbled toward earth during the latter
portion of its 30 second flight. Apparently actual engine cutoff in an emergency is
inhibited until 40-45 seconds pass to minimize chances of pad damage.
In the wake of the failure, all launches from Baikonur,
of all rocket types, were suspended pending the results of an official investigation.
The suspension on non-Proton rockets was soon lifted. About one week after
the failure, Russia's Interfax reported that a source close to the accident investigation
commission had said that investigation of the crash site had discovered that a series of
"angular velocity sensors" had been installed improperly on the Proton.
Various reports then described either the sensors being physically installed 180 degrees
out of position, or the wiring to the sensors being installed with reversed
Roscosmos made an official announcement on July
18, 2013 when it reported that the investigating commission had determined that
three of six yaw-axis angular rate sensors had been installed incorrectly during
rocket assembly by the Khrunichev State Space Research and Production Center. Marks
on the recovered sensors showed that they had been installed backwards. The error
could not be detected by any of the currently-used launch campaign testing methods.
The commission also determined that the liftoff switch was activated 0.4 seconds before
the actual Proton liftoff. Although it may not have caused this specific accident,
the premature disconnection is a potential launch failure cause that will also need to be
Orbits Navsat for India
A PSLV-XL launch vehicle launched IRNSS-1A, the first
Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System satellite, into geosynchronous transfer orbit
from Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota, India on July 1, 2013. The four
stage rocket, flying Indian Space Research Organization's PSLV-C22 mission, lifted off
from the first launch pad at 18:11 UTC. IRNSS-1A was injected into a 284 x 20,650 km
x 17.86 deg orbit.
IRNSS-1A weighed 1.425 tonnes at launch. It is the
first of seven planned satellites in India's navigation satellite system. The
constellation will include three geostationary satellites and four more in geosynchronous
orbits inclined 29 degrees.
It was the 22nd PSLV success in 24 flights.